Sunday, July 12, 2020

Adams, Abigail

Adams, Abigail Adams, Abigail, 1744â€"1818, wife of President John Adams and mother of President John Quincy Adams , b. Weymouth, Mass., as Abigail Smith. A lively, intelligent woman, she married John Adams in 1764 and more than three decades later became the chief figure in the social life of her husband's administration and one of the most distinguished and influential first ladies in the history of the United States. Her relationship with her husband came as close to a partnership of equals as the culture of the time would allow. Her detailed letters, most written during her husband's wartime absences, are a vivid source of social history. The correspondence with her husband was edited in a number of volumes by Charles Francis Adams and abridged by M. A. Hogan and C. J. Taylor (2007). The Adams-Jefferson Letters, edited by Lester J. Cappon (1959), includes her letters as well as John's, and letters to her sister, Mary Smith Cranch, are in New Letters of Abigail Adams, 1788â€"1801, edit ed by Stewart Mitchell (1947, repr. 1973). See biographies by J. Whitney (1947, repr. 1970), L. E. Richards (1917, repr. 1971), C. W. Akers (1980), and W. Holton (2009); E. B. Gelles, Abigail and John: Portrait of a Marriage (2009); G. J. Barker-Benfield, Abigail and John Adams: The Americanization of Sensibility (2010); J. J. Ellis, First Family (2010). See also bibliography for Adams, John . The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright © 2012, Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. See more Encyclopedia articles on: U.S. History: Biographies

Wednesday, May 20, 2020

Definition of Salon

Salon, derived from the French word salon (a living room or parlor), means a conversational gathering. Usually, this is a select group of intellectuals, artists, and politicians who meet in the private residence of a socially influential (and often wealthy) person. Pronunciation: sal ·on The Gertrude Stein   Numerous wealthy women have presided over salons in France and England since the 17th century. The American novelist and playwright Gertrude Stein (1874-1946) was known for her salon at 27 rue de Fleurus in Paris, where Picasso, Matisse, and other creative people would meet to discuss art, literature, politics and, no doubt, themselves. (noun) - Alternately, the Salon (always with a capital S) was the official art exhibition sponsored by the Acadà ©mie des Beaux-Arts in Paris. The Acadà ©mie was begun by Cardinal Mazarin in 1648 under the royal patronage of Louis XIV. The royal Acadà ©mie exhibition took place in the Salon dApollon in the Louvre in 1667 and was meant for only members of the Academy. In 1737 the exhibition was opened to the public and held annually, then biannually (during odd years). In 1748, a jury system was introduced. The jurors were members of the Academy and previous winners of Salon medals. The French Revolution After the French Revolution in 1789, the exhibition was opened to all French artists and became an annual event again. In 1849, medals were introduced. In 1863, the Academy exhibited the rejected artists in the Salon des Refusà ©s, which took place in a separate venue. Similar to our annual Academy Awards for Motion Pictures, the artists who made the cut for that years Salon counted on this affirmation by their peers to advance their careers. There was no other way to become a successful artist in France until the Impressionists courageously organized their own exhibition outside the authority of the Salon system. Salon art, or academic art, refers to the official style that the juries for the official Salon deemed acceptable. During the 19th century, the prevailing taste favored the finished surface inspired by Jacques-Louis David (1748-1825), a Neoclassical painter. In 1881, the French government withdrew its sponsorship and Socià ©tà © des Artistes Franà §ais took over the administration of the exhibition. These artists had been elected by artists who had already participated in the previous Salons. Therefore, the Salon continued to represent the established taste in France and resist the avant-garde. In 1889, the Socià ©tà © Nationale des Beaux-Arts broke away from the Artistes Franà §ais and founded their own salon. Here Are Other Breakaway Salons Salon des Aquarellistes (Watercolorists Salon), begun 1878Salon de lUnion des Femmes Peintres et Sculpteurs (Women Painters and Sculptors Union Salon), begun 1881Salon des Indà ©pendants, begun 1884Salon des Graveurs (Printmakers Salon), begun 1900Salon dautomne (Fall Salon), begun 1903Salon de lÉcole Franà §aise (French School Salon), begun 1903Salon dHiver (Winter Salon), founded in 1897, first exhibition 1904Salon des Arts Dà ©coratifs, begun 1905Salon de la Comà ©die Humaine, begun 1906Salon des Humeuristes begun 1908

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Social Media Produces Anxiety And Stress Because It Creates

Social media produces anxiety and stress because it creates pressure to maintain an identity and live up to certain standards. However, social media is not recognized as a real issue in young people because of the lack of attention from medical professionals. In this paper, I will analyze and gather research from multiple scholarly articles that give their opinion on social media and anxiety. Firstly, I will look at social media and anxiety from a medical point of view I will then collect information that suggests that social media is causing multiple feelings of stress, low self-esteem, and the faà §ade or fake lifestyle which will put pressure on young people today. Social media and anxiety are extremely relevant to today’s society. It is†¦show more content†¦Davey’s research supports a medical article by psychologist Kerkar Pramod. Pramod explores that Social Media Anxiety Disorder is an actual, very real diagnosis for which we can receive treatment and eve n recovery tips. He asserts that this disorder contributes to other serious mental illnesses such as depression (Pramod). Acknowledging the disorder is helping many understand it as a vital factor of their stress, loneliness, and anxiety. Pramod and Davey both show the severity of what this addiction can do in their articles. Davey examines the effects of social media and anxiety and explains the loneliness aspect of it (Davey). Yet, Pramod has identified the causes and symptoms which suggest several professionals, including psychologists are aware of the illness (Pramod). However, whilst few acknowledge the disorder, there does seem to be an overall lack of attention from most medical professionals. For example, the â€Å"Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders† written by the American Psychiatric Association is the complete categorization and analysis of every mental disorder (Oquendo, et al). 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Emission Allowance for Intangible Assets- myassignmenthelp.com

Question: Discuss about theEmission Allowance for Intangible Assets. Answer: Introduction Absence of acceptable accounting rules to be used in measurement of the emission has not at any point hindered extension of the market (Paul Burks, 2010). Such absence is mainly as a result of different applications as well as the ambiguous natures of the emission allowances. Emission allowance is basically very significant for implementation of Emission Trading Scheme. This is usually the market-based scheme which is developed with an aim to control any carbon emission and to accomplish environmental objectives which Europe is committed to achieve under Kyoto Protocol. The While accounting for emission assets one is required to ensure whether these emission allowances are purchased or granted and ensure that they meet all the description of assets (Fornaro, Winkelman Glodstein, 2009). This is achieved by examining their nature and then making decision as to whether they were non-financial instruments and intangible assets. With these considerations, the paper aims to present a dis cussion of how emission allowance is treated and its impact on financial statements. Nature of Emission Allowances Emissions are usually treated with high esteem in management conversions. For example, overall rule is aimed advancing or promoting objectives of title four which is mostly apprehensive with clear air alterations of the year 1990 (Mookdee, 2013). In this case, costing emissions allowances in coordination sales, where public utility level is in line with directive then providing retrieval of all the variable expenses on increasing level, then such commission would have a tendency of allowing retrieval of recognized incremental expenses of emissions pertaining to management saless. Nonetheless, in case the level of management is not in line with increasing expenses, public utility should give suggestions of different costing technique (Ragan Stagliano, 2011). Following Paul and Burks (2010) definition, it is clear that all the emission allowances act as intangible assets since they entails those possessions under organizations regulations from which a financial benefit is projected in an organization. In another proposal; that is, the MiFID, emission allowances is usually categorized as financial instruments. Though future Directive might try to shield the carbon markets by the monetary or fiscal market regulations, these emissions are not necessarily treated as financial instruments since as European Commission viewed that emission allowances are classified depending on all criteria that are set by the accounting standards only. Furthermore, emission allowances re not financial instruments since they do not at any point meet definition of the financial instruments, since such emissions are neither treated as equity nor as contracts instruments bringing about emergence of the contractual rights of receiving cash or any other fiscal assets (Mookdee, 2013). Furthermore, emissions are neither treated as derivatives, as they fails to recognize any primary or original investment which is lesser than it would be needed for the extra categories of the agreements which could be anticipated to have same responses to the variations in the market aspects, and are not established at upcoming date and fails to vary in line with the variations in the other variables. Basically, emission allowances are regarded as intangible assets or as inventories. How Emission Allowances Could Be Measured Originally and Afterward The measurement of emission allowances should be done consistently and that it should be measured initially and subsequently at its fair value (Paul Burks, 2010). To be more specific, emission allowances should be originally and subsequently be measured at their fair value. Based on the guidelines provided in FERC which are the only accounting guideline un US that addresses emission allowances, organizations are required to account for or measure emission allowances in a way similar to those requirements put forward by the FERC regulations. Furthermore, according to the FERC emission allowances are required to be recognized on historical cost bases and to be expenses as they are consumed on the weighted-average cost basis (Souchie, 2012). Basically, as emission allowances are considered as intangible assets, the IFRIC recommend then to be treated in line with requirements of the IAS 38, under which preparer of the financial statement is required to adopt one alternative for the subsequent measurements of the intangible assets; that is the revaluation method or the cost method. Under the cost technique, emission allowances are to be subsequently measures at cost less the impairment and amortization costs (Paul Burks, 2010). On the other hand, since revaluation method could only be adopted whenever the intangible assets are traded in active market, the IFRIC recommend that under such circumstances, the emission allowances should have to be measured at the fair value with the gains being recognized under the equity as the revaluation surplus as well as upsurge in revaluation excess being encompassed in comprehensive income statements as items of the other inclusive income. Further, under the IAS 38, emissions are to be apprehended for total sale in an ordinary course of any business and are to be treated as inventory as required by AIS 2 inventories (Fornaro, Winkelman Glodstein, 2009). This means that in case emission allowances were issued at lesser value than the it fair value, the bulk of the emission allowances has to be allocated free of any charges and these emission allowances are to be originally measured at a fair value with any difference that is recorded in between their fair value and any amount paid being recognized as the government grants and being recognized under the AIS 20: Disclosure of the Government Assistance (Ragan Stagliano, 2011). These granted allowances will be categorized as either deferred incomes in an organizations statement of financial position or they should be afterward unconfined to the income or revenue on the methodical basis over its agreement time for which all the emission allowances are to be issued. Despite these, the IAS 20 permits different organizations to select accounting policies where emission allowances could be recognized at the nominal amount; that is, at zero value. In addition, emission allowances liability suggest that all obligations should be delivered equal to the actual emission to scheme administrator and should be treated as provisions within AIS 37. In addition, under the AISB 137, emission allowances liabilities are to be initially measured or accounted for at best approximation every period the expenditures needed to settle present obligation is made (Fornaro, Winkelman Glodstein, 2009). This would be mainly at market value or fair value of allowances needed to recompense all the emission made all through the year as well as payable to the scheme managers by end of fourth month of every year. When emission allowance are received from a given government for free, they are usually recognizes at nil since they are granted at fair value or at no cost with difference between fair value and acquisition costs being acknowledged as the government grants or deferred incomes on the side of liability in an organizations balance sheet (Mookdee, 2013). On the other hand, whenever emission allowances are purchase in a given markets, they are usually acknowledged at the cost. Liabilities for emissions are usually acknowledged on undeviating basis though the most exercise is recognizing them as the emission take place. Instead of measuring these liabilities at their fair value, organizations are said to measure obligation to given amount of allowances at the resounding total of the allowances with stability at the market value. A journal entry for emission allowances while amortizing government grants on the systematic basis is as follows; Debit: Government grant; that is, deferred income Credit: income statement This is recognized as income share or quota of government grants which counterparts expenses of the emission within a given period. On the other hand, while receiving allocation of emission from government free of charge; Debit: Emission allowances; that is, intangible assets Credit: the government grant; that is, the deferred income While surrendering allowances to a given government in covering emissions; Debit: emission costs Credit: the obligation to surrender the emission allowances. In case, a re-measure of the related emission to the current event; Debit; the obligations to surrendering the allowances Credit: the emission allowances; that is, intangible assets Credit: income statement This help in recording surrender of the allowances. In another scenario; while purchasing emission from third parties, Debit: emission allowances Credit: cash On the other hand, while selling allowances to the third party Debit: cash and Credit: Emission allowances While surrendering allowances to a given government not to cover any emission Debit: Income statement Credit: Emission allowances; that is, intangible assets Further, while purchasing allowances from the government auction Debit: Emission allowances; that is, intangible assets Credit: Cash In addition, while reversing previous retirement deduction; Debit: The emission allowances Credit: The obligation to surrender the allowances Consequences of the Emission Allowances on Financial Statements Emission allowances are usually proved as very controversial due to the unjustified volatility which it is said to create in an organization financial statement especially in income statement. Given that different measurement criteria are applied for the held liabilities and assets that might arise from gases emitted by an organization, there is a probable artificial mismatch of the amount which is reflected in the plant income statement (Paul Burks, 2010). In essence, with the fact that emission allowances are measured at either revaluation or cost method, if these emission allowances are measured at their fair value through revaluation model, there is always a mismatch in recognition and measurement of variations in liabilities and assets since variation in value of emission allowances above the required costs would be initially recognized in the equity statement while variation in liabilities were are to be recognized in the balance sheet (Mookdee, 2013). On the other hand, in case emission allowances are accounted or measured using cost method, there would be a mismatch since AIS 37 usually necessitates an organizations liability for obligation in delivering allowances to be usually measured at a fair value. Such mismatch were the key reasons for EFRAG decision of issuing some negative authorization advice in regard to this interpretation. This resulted to withdrawal of this interpretation by IASB by June 2005 (Fornaro, Winkelman Glodstein, 2009). Furthermore, emission allowances are said to result in income volatility which cannot be at any point be justified on an economic ground. This could be explained when emission made by an organization exceed quantity of the emission allowances recognized as the assets. Conclusion In conclusion, while accounting for emission assets one is required to ensure whether these emission allowances are purchased or granted and ensure that they meet all the description of assets. This should include examining their nature and then making decision as to whether they were non-financial instruments and intangible assets. Furthermore, it can be concluded that emissions are the intangible assets since they are those resources under organizations regulation from which a financial benefit is projected to flow to an organization. Further, it can be concluded that measurement of emission allowances should be done consistently and that it should be measured initially and subsequently at its fair value. To be more specific, it can be concluded that emission allowances should be originally and subsequently be measured at their fair value. This is based on the guidelines provided in FERC which require organizations to account for or measure emission allowances in a way similar to t hose requirements put forward by the FERC regulations. In addition, emission allowances are to be recognized on historical cost bases and to be expenses as they are consumed on the weighted-average cost basis. Furthermore, it can be concluded that under intangible assets are to be apprehended for net sale in normal course of any business and are to be treated as inventory meaning that in case emissions were issued at lesser value than the it fair value, the bulk of the emission allowances has to be allocated free of any charges and these emission allowances are to be originally measured at the fair value with any difference that is recorded between their fair value and that quantity paid being identified as the government grant and being accounted for. It can also be concluded that emission allowances bring unjustified volatility in an organization financial statement especially in income statement. Furthermore, given emission allowances are measured at their fair value through reva luation model, it can be concluded that there is always a mismatch in recognition and measurement of variations in liabilities and assets since variation in value of emission allowances above the required costs would be initially recognized in the equity statement while variation in liabilities were are to be recognized in the balance sheet. References Fornaro, J. M., Winkelman, K. A., Glodstein, D. (2009). Accounting for emissions. Journal of Accountancy, 208(1), 40. Mookdee, T. (2013). Accounting for carbon emission trading: an Australian perspective. Paul, A., Burks, E. (2010). Preparing for international financial reporting standards. Journal of Finance and Accountancy, 4, 1. Ragan, J. M., Stagliano, A. J. (2011). Cap and Trade Allowance Accounting: A Divergence Between Theory and Practice. Journal of Business Economics Research (JBER), 5(11). Souchie, L. E. (2012). Accounting for Emissions Trading: How Allowances Appear on Financial Statements Could Influence the Effectiveness of Programs to Curb Pollution. BC Envtl. Aff. L. Rev., 39, 475.

Thursday, April 23, 2020

Suyuan’s Tragedies in the Joy Luck Club Essay Example

Suyuan’s Tragedies in the Joy Luck Club: Paper In Amy Tan’s novel, The Joy Luck Club, each female character experiences different degrees of tragedy, but Suyuan Woo’s life appears to the most tragic. Despite suffering many misfortunes in her life, Suyuan is a willful woman who does not focus on the hardships in life but instead attempts to create happiness. With this personality, she creates the Joy Luck Club in China to find happiness while the Japanese invaded China. Later, Suyuan leaves China and comes to America in hopes of starting fresh. Suyuan suffers because of her losses, her miscommunication, and the fear she lived in. During the Japanese invasion, Suyuan loses almost everything she holds dear. While trying to escape to Chungking, Suyuan abandons her twin daughters and leaves her possessions and address with them, in hopes â€Å"that her daughters would be found by a kindhearted person who would care for them† (Tan 325). Suyuan did not know what the future would hold, but she had to believe that her daughters would survive. Though Suyuan did not want to leave, she sacrificed herself in hopes that someone would give them a better life because if she had died with them, no one would take such unfortunate babies. We will write a custom essay sample on Suyuan’s Tragedies in the Joy Luck Club: specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Suyuan’s Tragedies in the Joy Luck Club: specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Suyuan’s Tragedies in the Joy Luck Club: specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer In addition, when Suyuan reached Chungking and learned that her husband had died, â€Å"she was delirious with madness† (Tan 326). Even though Suyuan had come all the way to Chungking, she gained nothing. Suyuan knew that her husband might die fighting in the war, but after losing her daughters, when she heard her husband’s fate, she was shocked to lose him, too. Nothing important remained in Suyuan’s life after her journey from Kweilin to Chungking. In America, Suyuan’s relationship with her other daughter, Jing-mei, deteriorates due to miscommunication between them. For example, when Suyuan tries to help Jing-mei find her inner prodigy, Jing-mei defies and resents her, thinking that her mother is trying to make her â€Å"be someone [she’s] not† (Tan 153). Jing-mei does not fully appreciate her mother when Suyuan tries to help her, believing that she can only be her self and cannot be forced to accomplish more. The American social pressure causes Jing-mei to try to be like everyone else, so she misunderstands her mother’s motive in making Jing-mei work hard to nurture her talents. In addition, at the New Year’s dinner, Jing-mei thinks that the reason that her mother had given her the ade pendant was because of Waverly’s insults, but Suyuan meant to give Jing-mei the pendant in hopes that her daughter will recognize life’s importance. Jing-mei fails to realize that her mother knows that she has the best quality at heart, and even after Jing-mei’s failures, Suyuan never expects anything from her. Whe n Suyuan was alive, Jing-mei did not wear the pendant, thinking that it was unstylish, but after Suyuan dies, Jing-mei understands that her mother was trying to convey her deep love and concern for her. Miscommunication caused a gap between mother daughter relationships. Suyuan’s life is also tragic due to the constant fear she lived in. For example, Suyuan always feared that she might not be able to find her babies or something might happen to them, and when Canning unintentionally asserted her fears, â€Å"he put a terrible thought in her head that her daughters were dead, which grew bigger and bigger until it killed her† (Tan 329). Suyuan was forever hoping that one of her attempts to find her daughter would come true. Suyuan searches for her twin daughters her whole life but she is not reunited and so Suyuan’s long cherished wish remains unfulfilled. In addition, Suyuan wants the best for Jing-mei when she â€Å"tries to cultivate some hidden genius† (27) in Jing-mei, but she worries that her daughter might not understand this. After failing to excel at each task her mother sets, Jing-mei begins to see them as expectations and feels like a failure, but Suyuan never expects anything from Jing-mei except for her to try her best. When Suyuan tries to find Jing-mei’s inner prodigy, not only was she hoping the best for daughter, but she was also living through Jing-mei’s success by having what she could not as young girl in China. As a mother, Suyuan always worries about her daughters’ well being. Since Suyuan never displayed her true emotions on her face because she was taught in the Chinese way, she never let anyone know how much she was truly suffering in the inside. Inside, Suyuan suffers because almost nothing remains of her life in China, her declining relationship with Jing-mei, which is caused by the lack of communication between them, and the continuous trepidation in her life in America. Despite all her suffering, Suyuan never loses hope or the motivation to keep trying and never give up. This is shown in Suyuan’s life when she never gives up trying to find her daughters and when she tries to mend her relationship with Jing-mei. However, even her strong will could not avert fate, as she dies with her unfulfilled, long cherished wish. Bibliography Tan, Amy. The Joy Luck CLub. Vintage Books USA, 1991.

Tuesday, March 17, 2020

Misuse of Connective Symbols with Numbers

Misuse of Connective Symbols with Numbers Misuse of Connective Symbols with Numbers Misuse of Connective Symbols with Numbers By Mark Nichol In each of the following sentences, a connective symbol is employed in a reference to numbers or numerical values, but the usage is incorrect. Explanation of the error, and a revision of the error, follows each example. 1. Open enrollment for 2018 runs from November 1 December 15. A connective symbol linking two values in a number range functions as a replacement for from and to (or between and and), not just the latter word (though only to is pronounced when the number range is read aloud, hence the confusion), so do not precede a number range formatted this way with from (or between): â€Å"Open enrollment for 2018 runs November 1–December 15.† If the word from is retained, to should replace the symbol. (Note also that the symbol should be an en dash, not a simple hyphen- except when a publication’s style guide specifies use of that symbol- and that no letter spaces should intervene.) 2. Five-thousand service members are expected to participate in the event. Hyphenation is used in spelled-out numbers only to link two words representing two place values, as in seventy-five. â€Å"Five thousand† modifies â€Å"service members† but is an open compound: â€Å"Five thousand service members are expected to participate in the event.† Note that large round numbers are often spelled out in isolation but should be treated as figures if other numbers appear in proximity, but numbers should always be spelled out at the head of a sentence. (If doing so is awkward, as in the case of a large precise number such as that representing a year like 2017 that requires more than a couple of words to convey, recast the sentence.) 3. The most fatalities occurred in the 15-24 year old age group. In most books and in some publications, style would dictate that the numbers in this sentence should be spelled out. However, in other content, or in a case in which using numerals is preferable (as when a concentration of numbers occurs), the phrase in which the figures appear should be treated as shown here: â€Å"The most fatalities occurred in the 15- to 24-year-old age group.† (When numbers are spelled out, the sentence should read, â€Å"The most fatalities occurred in the fifteen- to twenty-four-year-old age group.†) The hyphen does not function as a linking symbol connecting two figures in a number range; it links words that are part of a phrasal adjective, an abridgement of â€Å"15-year-old to 24-year-old† in which the first instance of â€Å"year-old† is omitted because it is clearly implicit. (This tactic, called suspensive hyphenation, renders such phrases more concise and less cluttered. In addition, the sentence can be further pared to â€Å"The most fatalities occurred among 15- to 24-year-olds.†) Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Style category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:Definitely use "the" or "a"At Your DisposalWhat the heck are "learnings"?

Sunday, March 1, 2020

The United Nations History, Organization, Functions

The United Nations History, Organization, Functions The United Nations is an international organization designed to make the enforcement of international law, security, and human rights; economic development; and social progress easier for countries around the world. The United Nations includes 193 member countries  and two permanent observer entities  that cannot vote. Its main headquarters is in New York City. History and Principles of the United Nations Prior to the United Nations (UN), the League of Nations was the international organization responsible for ensuring peace and cooperation between world nations. It was founded in 1919 to promote international cooperation and to achieve peace and security. At its height, the League of Nations had 58 members and was considered successful. In the 1930s, its success waned as the Axis Powers (Germany, Italy, and Japan) gained influence, eventually leading to the start of World War II in 1939. The term United Nations was then coined in 1942 by Winston Churchill and Franklin D. Roosevelt in the Declaration by United Nations. This declaration was made to officially state the cooperation of the Allies (Great Britain, the United States, and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics) and other nations during World War II. The UN as it is known today, however, was not officially founded until 1945 when the Charter of the United Nations was drafted at the UN Conference on International Organization in San Francisco, California. Representatives of 50 nations and several non-governmental organizations attended the conference, all of which signed the charter. The UN officially came into existence on October 24, 1945, after its charters ratification. The principles of the UN are to save future generations from war, reaffirm human rights, and establish equal rights for all persons. In addition, it also aims to promote justice, freedom, and social progress for the peoples of all of its member states. Organization of the UN Today To handle the complex task of getting its member states to cooperate most efficiently, the UN today is divided into five branches. The first is the UN General Assembly. This is the main decision-making and representative assembly and is responsible for upholding the principles of the UN through its policies and recommendations. It is composed of all member states, is headed by a president elected from the member states, and meets from September to December each year. The UN Security Council is another branch and is the most powerful. It can authorize the deployment of UN member states militaries, can mandate a cease-fire during conflicts and can enforce penalties on countries if they do not comply with given mandates. It is composed of five permanent members and 10 rotating members. The next branch of the UN is the International Court of Justice, located in The Hague, Netherlands. Next, the Economic and Social Council assists the General Assembly in promoting economic and social development as well as the cooperation of member states. Finally, the Secretariat is the branch headed by the Secretary-General. Its main responsibility is providing studies, information, and other data when needed by other UN branches for their meetings. Membership Today, almost every fully recognized independent state is a member of the UN. To become a member of the UN, a state must accept both peace and all obligations outlined in charter and be willing to carry out any action to satisfy those obligations. The final decision on admission to the UN is carried out by the General Assembly after recommendation by the Security Council. Functions of the United Nations Today As it was in the past, the main function of the UN today is to maintain peace and security for all of its member states. Though the UN does not maintain its own military, it does have peacekeeping forces that are supplied by its member states. On approval of the UN Security Council, these peacekeepers are, for example, sent to regions where armed conflict has recently ended to discourage combatants from resuming fighting. In 1988, the peacekeeping force won a Nobel Peace Prize for its actions. In addition to maintaining peace, the UN aims to protect human rights and provide humanitarian assistance when needed. In 1948, the General Assembly adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights as a standard for its human rights operations. The UN currently provides technical assistance in elections, helps to improve judicial structures and draft constitutions trains human rights officials, and provides food, drinking water, shelter, and other humanitarian services to peoples displaced by famine, war, and natural disaster. Finally, the UN plays an integral part in social and economic development through its UN Development Program. This is the largest source of technical grant assistance in the world. In addition, the World Health Organization; UNAIDS; The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria; the UN Population Fund; and the World Bank Group, to name a few, play an essential role in this aspect of the UN. The parent organization also annually publishes the Human Development Index to rank countries in terms of poverty, literacy, education, and life expectancy. Millennium Development Goals At the turn of the century, the UN established what it called its Millennium Development Goals. Most of its member states and various international organizations agreed to target goals relating to reducing poverty and child mortality, fighting diseases and epidemics, and developing a global partnership in terms of international development, by 2015. A report issued as the deadline neared noted the progress that had been made, lauding efforts in developing nations, and noted shortfalls as well that need continued focus: people still living in poverty without access to services, gender inequality, the wealth gap, and climate changes effects on the poorest people.